At the time nationalism emerged in Turkey, there were several competing ideologies such as Ottomanism and Pan-Islamism. However, the victory of Turkish nation-state in the aftermath of the Independence War confirmed nationalism as the dominant ideology and promoted Ziya Gökalp as its foremost ideologue. The birth of nationalism brought the status of non-Muslim population in Turkey, which used to be a part of the Ottoman “millet” system, to the agenda as they did not fit the Turkish-Islamic synthesis adopted by the new official ideology. In this respect, the role of Ziya Gökalp was crucial for he was the first who systematized nationalism as an overall ideology and made the theoretical foundations of Turkish nation-state. This study aims to demonstrate the position of non-Muslim minorities within the context of Turkish nationalism during the late Ottoman and Early Republican eras, drawing mainly on the work of Ziya Gökalp’s texts.