Otitis media with effusion is one of the most common pediatric diseases. Otitis media with effusion possess diagnostic challenges to the non Otolaryngologist. This book reviews these challenges along with different tools used to help with the diagnosis including pneumatic otoscopy. The study discussed in this book looks at whether pneumatic otoscopy would improve the diagnostic accuracy of otitis media with effusion (OME) in clinical practice over otoscopy only. A randomized single-blind control trial was undertaken comparing pneumatic otoscopy versus otoscopy-only in making a correct diagnosis of otitis media with effusion using tympanograms as the diagnostic gold standard.