Conflict remains a South Asian reality with a unilateral focus on territorial security. Nonetheless, an attempt has been made in this book to look into the non-traditional sources of conflict in the region with a special focus on Pakistan and India. The thrust of this research is premised on two specifics. First, the non-traditional security paradigm is a consequence of the widening of security studies into different variants and a result of the world''s quest for a sustainable peace in the post-Cold War era. Second, if the non-traditional causes of conflict are not managed, they will not only exacerbate existing conflicts but have the potential of growing into full-fledged conflicts. Peacemaking is a complex process. It is not just linked to the military lesions but is also inclusive of socio-political, economic, and cultural relations among states, and must aim at changing the threat perception of the protagonist. The people are aspiring for a durable peace and better living conditions. Economic, political, social and moral logic calls for it.