Noninvasive treatment alternatives for diseases from diabetes to hypercholerestemia are at the cutting edge of research. Although many noninvasive drug delivery routes, including oral, buccal, and dermal have been investigated no route has been fully approved for patient use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards as an alternative to current needle dependent insulin delivery. 10 12 This book focuses on two novel oral protein drug delivery systems α-Zr(IV) phosphate (α-ZrP)-protein-Divalent Metal Ion and α- Zr(IV) phosphate (α-ZrP)-protein- cationized Bovine Serum Albumin BSA. Glucose oxidase (GO) serves as a model protein in this book for noninvasive alternatives to lowering blood sugar in type I and II diabetics. However, instead of encapsulating GO, an oral drug treatment for diabetes, alternative proteins can also be encapsulated as oral drug treatments for ailments such as hypercholesterolemia. This experiment tests what ionized version of BSA (native BSA-TEPA (-25), BSA-TEPA (0), BSA-TEPA (-13), BSA-TEPA (+5), or divalent metal ion (Mg (II), Ca (II), or Ba (II)) intercalated into ZrP results in maximal GO binding and release in the intestinal region.