As long as humans have been around, there has been stress. Stress is a state of threatened homeostasis, which can be of physical and/or psychological nature. Stressful conditions results in various pathophysiological states that cut across the traditional concept of disease and include a range of disorders. The present book highlights various stress components and identification of potential therapeutic targets and lead molecules (plant and synthetic origin) for their therapeutic efficacy under different stressful conditions. The insights of simultaneous changes in the monoaminergic and antioxidant systems during stress have been crafted in to touch upon the clinical relevance of the stress biology in relation to neurological perturbations. Further, to highlight the molecular mechanism through which lead molecules modulates the stress responses and their crosstalk with other signaling pathways, the alterations in the expression levels of various stress related genes and proteins were examined and incorporated in the book. The book is intended to serve as a conceptual guide for beginners in the stress research and a short reference guide to the experts.