Research and development works in the realm of vegetable oil based polymeric materials have attracted increasing worldwide attention in recent years. This book highlights the utilization of vegetable oil, a sustainable resource, in the development of polyurethane resins in a systematically organised manner. In addition, various literatures regarding vegetable oil based polyurethane resins have been reviewed. The experimental part of the study describes our attempts to prepare, characterize and evaluate the properties of polyurethane resins based on Mesua ferrea L. seed oil. The book demonstrates that blending with commercial resins, formation of natural fibre decorated green composites and nanoclay incorporated nanocomposites lead to improvement in the performance characteristics of the prepared resins as coating materials. Biodegradability and cytotoxicity assessment of the blends and nanocomposites add value to the developed polyurethanes as novel biomaterials. The acceptable performance as binder for industrial stoving paints unmasks the industrial applicability of the prepared resin systems. Finally, the book discusses the major aspects and future scopes of the current work.