A review of the recently published information on the nutritional aspects of oil seed crops in relation to their yield and quality reveals a substantial scope for increasing their production in the country. National self-sufficiency of edible oil would be enhanced if the productivity of the oil seed crops on marginal soils under rain fed conditions is increased through adoption of improved management technology and improved germ-plasm. This warrants intensive research efforts in these areas. Applying mineral fertilizers in balanced amounts and in an integrated manner by combining with bulky organic manures and crop residues can ensure sustainable production at higher productivity and higher quality level of the oil seed crops. For optimum utilization of other essential inputs, fertilizer requirements need to be fine-tuned, especially in oil seed-based cropping systems and intercropping systems. Besides making best use of the applied nutrients, such management practices can substantially benefit the major cereal crops from the fixed-N, if the accompanying oil seed crop happens to be a leguminous like soybean or groundnut.