Increasing incidences of some chronic diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease, have raised awareness regarding the importance of diet. It is estimated that one-third of the cancer cases and up to half of cardiovascular disease cases are thought to be diet related. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown an inverse association between fruit and vegetable consumption and chronic diseases, including different types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Much of the protective effect of fruits and vegetables has been attributed to phytochemicals, which are the non-nutrient plant compounds such as the carotenoids, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, and phenolic acids. Thousands of phytochemicals have been identified in foods, yet there are still many that have not been identified. This book reviews the nutritional value of these phytochemicals found in fruits and vegetables, their chemistry and possible pharmacological and health benefits.