Observing is one of the primary ways in which we learn. Investigating the kinds of repertoires that can be acquired through observation is the focus of this book. Specifically, the research presented was aimed at answering the question, can a non-preferred activity be conditioned as a reinforcer through observational learning, without explicit and direct contact with reinforcement? Conditioned reinforcement typically occurs when a previously non-preferred stimulus comes to acquire reinforcing capabilities through a history of pairings with a known reinforcer. Two experiments were performed to test whether the acquisition of conditioned reinforcement would occur through observation only for independent engagement in mathematics, which was identified as being a non-preferred activity of the participants. Overall, the results of the research provided support for a new type of observational learning, observational learning of conditioned reinforcement. The findings of these studies have important implications for classroom instruction in that they suggest the significance of the role of observation of peers in the acquisition of conditioned reinforcers for performance and learning.