In the past era of dentistry, it was believed that, “It Is What Is Removed From the Canal That Is Important, Not What Is Put In”. But with the evolution of endodontics & a better understanding of the root canal system, researchers have attributed failure of root canal therapy largely to incomplete obturation of the root canal system. Although the clinician has a variety of obturation techniques to choose from today, the quality of seal produced by either of them is questionable. One of the biggest challenges that faces endodontics in this millennium is to find a material that can form a leakproof seal that is bioinductive and promotes regeneration, or a "smart" material that can adapt to the ever-changing microenvironment of the canal system. This book is a compilation of the golden standards of obturating materials, types of root canal sealers, root canal filling techniques & the more current clinical data that are based on procedures performed with more advanced techniques. With the knowledge of these recent innovations, the future holds the promise of providing the most valuable thread of evidence connecting the patient & the clinician in delivering the oral health care.