The book is devoted to one of the vital problem of natural sciences: an origin of hydrocarbons. Fundamental tenets of the theory of oil biospheric origin, different interpretations of this theory as well as factors effecting the generation of abiogenic oil substance and various probable routes of abiogenous component of oil and gas systems formation are considered from positions of polygenic nature of hydrocarbons. The hypothesis about one of possible ways of abiogenous oil components formation is proposed on the basis of available data on Earth geospheres structure, composition of deep ascending fluids and reactivity of their components. The hypothesis rests upon the ideas about of reactivity of methane (its close homologs), element sulfur, and metals - "mantle labels". It is assumed that in the evolution of deep endogenic fluids during their migration towards Earth surface is accompanied by catalytic condensation transformations of hydrocarbons leading to generation of various types of hydrocarbons and organosulfur compounds. The book will be of interest for experts in the field of oil geology and geochemistry, petrochemistry, a geocatalysis.