The book, Oil Exploitation in the Western Niger Delta, Nigeria since 1956: A Cost Benefit Analysis, examines the impact and reactions of the people to the exploitation of oil and gas and assesses the policy responses of the government and oil companies to these reactions. The aim of the book is to advance the history of the Niger Delta beyond trade and politics to an examination of the impact of the exploitation of oil and gas on the people. Oil exploitation causes significant harm to the environment and the economy of the host communities. In this region, the magnitude of this harm has not been articulated. Deleterious effects that are emphasized are basically as they affect the flora and fauna. This pattern of analysis which considers the environment only in relation to pollution,without discussing its effect on the quality of life of the impacted communities is anachronistic. This calls for a historical and holistic approach to the study of the oil industry in the region. This book is of interest to researchers,government policy makers and operators of the oil industry in Nigeria who are unhesitatingly committed to the denouement of the intractable problems of the Niger Delta.