The past decade has witnessed the fastest growing of biomedical optics research in history. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is one of the most exciting inventions in biomedical optics. This dissertation represented my Ph.D. research work on ophthalmic OCT under the mentoring of Dr. Zhongping Chen at Beckman Laser Institute & medical clinic of University of California, Irvine (BLIMC-UCI). My other academic advisors included Dr. Bruce Tromberg, Dr. Anthony Durkin, Dr. Ron Kurtz, and Dr. Barry Kupperman. The in vivo spectral Doppler OCT imaging technology developed to image dynamic, pulsatile retinal blood vessels was highlighted in this dissertation. Some technical details of the ophthalmic OCT imaging system I developed at BLIMC-UCI were discussed. Some collaborated ophthalmic research work such as screening retina transplants and monitoring subsurface femtosecond laser photo-disruption on anterior segment of human eye for Glaucoma treatment were also presented. I wish the publication of this dissertation will not only promote scientific knowledge, but also stimulate interest of readers in developing more OCT applications.