This book highlights the role of Multi-Agent System technology in building Energy Management Systems (EMS) for microgrids. The book chapters highlight the importance of forecasting, generation scheduling, market participation and Human Machine Interface (HMI) in providing real-time optimum power generation decisions for microgrids. Initially, in-depth engineering-based economic and environmental cost analyses are reported in this book to address the methods of reducing generation cost in microgrids. Thereafter, the book elaborates the utilisation of agent-based modelling and artificial intelligence in simulating a microgrid managing its resources by utilising distributed computation modules. The methods used in the EMS relating forecasting, generation scheduling and market participation are finally tested in this book based on realistic weather and electricity demand data. Ultimately, gas gen-sets, wind turbines, solar PVs, storage devices and utility gird were modelled to supply highly non-linear generation profile for the simulation studies in this book.