The modern period of time may be characterized by the words of the father of the modern management P. Druker who wrote that we live in one of the historical periods of time that occurs every two or three hundred years when people cease to orient in everything around one and when experience from the past is inadequate for intelligible explanation of the future. This time presents all social institutions with many demanding challenges. Along with other social institutions universities are in search for the ways to cope with those challenges. To be successful in this search the universities should change their organizational culture. This book provides the results of a comparative study of organizational cultures of two universities: the Russian and the American ones. It is shown that the appropriate organizational culture can provide a university with an opportunity of sustainable development in turbulent environment, and the study of this the culture discovers the ways to improve the university performance. The book will be helpful for both leadership of the universities and researchers studying the organizational culture.