Similar to the chemical warfare agents produced during World War II, organophosphates are some of the most common insecticides used today. A serious downside, however, is that they also happen to be extremely toxic, adversely affecting the human nervous system even at low levels of exposure. The children of farmers or agricultural workers are considered to have a higher risk of pesticide exposure than does the general population, because of the close proximity of their homes to the fields where pesticides are applied, and from the take-home exposure. While high-level exposure to organophosphates can lead to death in the short term, several studies have suggested that chronic low-level exposure can also have serious health consequences, especially for infants and young children. Organophosphates interfere with healthy neurodevelopment, leading to behavioral problems and lower cognitive function. This book highlights the neurological risk of exposure to organophosphate pesticides in the children of agricultural workers. The results of the study would be useful in policy making, implementing preventive measures and creating awareness among farmers regarding use of organophosphates.