Orofacial pain is the presenting symptom of a broad spectrum of diseases. Some of these disorders are easily recognized and treated whereas others defy classification and are unresponsive to present treatment methods. The possible causes of orofacial pain are considerable and cross the boundaries of many medical and dental disciplines. As a symptom, it may be due to disease of the orofacial structures, generalized musculoskeletal or rheumatic disease, peripheral or central nervous system disease, or psychological abnormality; or the pain may be referred from other sources (e.g., cervical muscles or intracranial pathology). OFP may also occur in the absence of detectable physical, imaging, or laboratory abnormalities. Non-odontogenic pains often pose a diagnostic dilemma for the dental practitioner. This book reviews extensibly on causes of nonodontogenic orofacial pain with detailed deliberation on pathophysiology, symptoms , diagnosis and treatment of orofacial pain due to neural and vascular causes.