Communication is primary to human existence and while people acquire their mother tongue naturally, the acquisition of a second language presents a significantly greater challenge, one that cannot be successfully completed without applying appropriate approaches, methods, strategies and techniques. After centuries of development in ELT, we now find ourselves in a post-method period and in the plenitude of approaches available to us, it is greatly important to choose those that suit the learner best. This book presents an overview of various methods and approaches, paying special attention to communicative language teaching and communicative competence. However, the main body of the book analyses pair work in ELT from various perspectives, suggesting its pros and cons and relating it to the principles of CLT. The theoretical part of the book sets foundations to the second part, which details a field research carried out in a selected primary school. The book should be particularly useful to students of pedagogy and didactics, as well as teachers of primary and seconary schools, who seek practical advice on how to enhance their professional performance.