Palestine experienced five different ruling regimes which left their footprints on physical spatial structure of the area affecting settlements distribution and layout. Ottoman rule, the British Mandate, Jordanian rule, Israeli occupation, and the Palestinian National Authority each ruled the area and contributed to the recent shape and physical spatial fabric of the region. This book is intended to introduce Palestine’s geography and spatial changes which took place since the middle of the 19th century. It is mainly aimed at students studying geo-politics of Palestine and the Arab-Israeli conflict, but it is hoped it will be of interest to a wider range of general readers too. The book is a combination of interrelated topics grouped into five main sections. The sections are not intended to be strongly thematic, nor strictly chronological in structure.