The book provides an account of the complex number of problems in the pastoral areas of the Horn of Africa. It sets out to point to the causes and the origin of the problems that pastoral peoples in those areas commonly face. From the discussion of the available literature and the outcomes of most of the development interventions made in the region, the book shows that the usual myths and misconceptions of old orthodoxies and problems still prevail and that these form basis of misunderstandings and ignorance about the pastoral production system. The latter also form the building blocks to erroneous concepts such as ‘economic irrationality’, ‘mismanagement of common properties and environments by the pastoral herders. Examples of some development interventions and their impacts were discussed. The book also discusses some alternative approaches and options for the development of pastoral people, resources and environments and concludes that the use of the indigenous technical knowledge and skills of the local people is crucial if real improvement of the living conditions of pastoralists, their local environments and livestock and success of any development project or effort.