This book is about the process of traditional pastoral transformation. It investigates the impacts of external interventions and internal dynamics in relation to management of natural resource and adaptation. The role of traditional pastoralism, once the dominant economy in the Region is declining due to the shrinkage of resources. Political and institutional shocks at macro level, environmental degradation, declining role of traditional institutions, rapid urbanization, population growth, national parks, private and state farms and floriculture and horticulture industry have significantly contributed for the shrinkage. Sedentarization, privatization, intensification and diversification became pervasive. In a struggle to maintain survival need as a pastoralist, they are losers, yet innovatively adapting to the external and internal shocks, they are winners in appropriating their share of life sustaining resources. As a result there is a continuous organization and reorganization of relationships – resulting in dynamic conflicts and conflict transformation mechanisms.