The book focuses on the lack of medical treatment in the world. It examines whether IPRs are human rights, and then considers the issues of IPRs and the right to health, before linking IPRs, human rights and the issue of access to medicines. One chapter deals with one of the first cases in South Africa to achieve affordable medical treatment. It considers competition law as a solution. After discussing the TRIPS provisions and the relationship towards competition law, case studies will be analysed. The analysis will be completed by focusing on human rights and how these can promote access to essential medicines. In addition, it gives some future suggestions how this issue might be solved in the forthcoming time. In particular, with the help of international organisations in order to avoid dependency on other states.