Diabetes and its associated complications constitute a huge global health menace. Diabetes mellitus or simply diabetes is a lifelong progressive disease that results from body?s inability to produce insulin, use of insulin to its full potential or both, and is characterized by high circulating glucose (hyperglycemia). Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a disease of the retina, is the most common and specific microvascular complication of diabetes. It is the major cause of blindness among people in working age and is a leading cause of visual impairment in older patients in developed countries, representing a major socioeconomic problem. The present book describes the pathobiology of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, and utilization of plant derived components as adjunct to present treatments.