Inflammation, hypoxia, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and chemical mediators play a critical role in pathological angiogenesis,macular oedema and fibrosis in diabetes. Laser photocoagulation is still the currently approved gold standard for treatment of clinically significant macular oedema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy with strong evidence from large, multicentric, randomized controlled trials. Emerging treatments focus on pharmacologic interventions alone or in combination for improving prognosis. The body of evidence for pharmacologic interventions is growing and becoming convincing. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, head to head comparisons between anti VEGF, corticosteroid and laser therapy alone and in combination are still required for dispassionate scientific analysis. Our understanding of the mediators is increasing and novel intervention strategies may be introduced by proteomics. Combined intervention strategies may become the gold standard in near future. This book presents the current evidence and emerging paradigms in pathological ocular angiogenesis and macular oedema in diabetes. An exciting and enlightening book altogether.