Considerable research has been done into the field ofHIV/AIDS since cases were first detected thirty yearsago. The range and types of pathology encountered inAIDS have been extensively documented such that alist of AIDS-defining diseases is now well known tomost medical practitioners. Until fairly recently the specific causes of morbidity and mortalityin the HIV-positive populations living in Sub-SaharanAfrica – where a large proportion of the world’sHIV-infected inhabitants live – remained obscure. Thecurrent work describes an autopsy study done by theauthor in Botswana during the late 1990's whichidentified the disease processes prevalent in theadult and pediatric HIV-positive populations andwhich uncovered the major causes of death in thesepeople. The information derived from this study hascontributed towards channeling healthcare resourcesto optimize the prevention, diagnosis and managementof AIDS and HIV-associated conditions inBotswana. The book is aimed at specialists in thefield of AIDS research and also atnon-specialists who wish to gain an insight into thepathology of AIDS and the practical utility ofpost-mortem examination.