Zambia is one of the Southern African countries that experienced drought between 2001 and 2003. As a result the country had low levels of maize harvest, which is the country''s main staple food. The Zambian population depends on maize for both household food security and cash. For this reason the Government of Zambia appealed for help from the international community in order to meet the shortfall of maize with a view to feeding its starving population, particularly in the rural areas. In response to the government''s appeal, World Food Programme, (WFP) a United Nations Food agency brought assistance in the form of 27,000 tonnes of genetically modified (GM) maize into the country in July 2002. The Zambian government, however, rejected GM maize in both grain and milled forms, citing health, environmental and trade concerns with the European Union. Thus the focus of the research was to understand, on one hand the government''s action of rejecting GM maize as food aid, while on the other hand accepting that drought-stricken small-scale farmers would go hungry as a result of this decision.