Perfluorocarbons are fluorine substituted halocarbons. They have been used in several technological areas because of their thermal and chemical stability. In addition they are biocompatible and can dissolve large amounts of gas as compared to water. Their capacity of dissolution of oxygen and carbon dioxide makes them desirable gas carriers. Consequently, they have undergone trials, for liquid ventilation, oxygen therapeutics (blood substitutes), cell culture and organ preservation, among others. Pharmaceutical companies have invested intensively in this research field because of the advantages that a fluorocarbon based preparation can have in assisted ventilation and oxygen therapeutics. Fluorocarbons have shown good performance in the treatment of respiratory distress and positive results have been also achieved in acute respiratory distress syndrome. In addition, they are preparations which are able to give a fast, simple and cost effective facility for transfusion and oxygen delivery that have the benefit of being virus and prion free and thus suitable for use in cases where infection could be a problem.