It is vital that the performance appraisal system in every organisation be aligned with organisational strategy and have a developmental focus. The outcomes would be in terms of a committed and motivated workforce and employees who would be focused on the vision and mission of the organisation. Thus, a Performance Appraisal System in the organisation of today has to evolve from a mere evaluative control-oriented process into a developmental and transformational one. This book presents a research study that attempts to add to the empirical research base in India on the complex area of performance appraisal. It compares the performance appraisal systems of two organisations in the aluminium industry in Orissa, India, belonging to two different sectors of the economy, the private sector and the public sector. The study has investigated the perceptions of the employees of the two organisations on several dimensions of performance appraisal across organisational and managerial levels. The findings have implications for all organisations that would want to understand the complexities of performance appraisal systems.