This work aims to explore the differences of performance management practice in the public sector in Indonesia and Australia; two neighbouring countries with different images of the government system. As a comparative study, the research found that if Australian Public Service has both organisational and individual performance planning which then strengthen effectively the implementation of performance training and performance appraisals, Indonesian Public Service conversely most likely has some significant problems as they do not have individual performance planning. Hence, the processes of performance training and performance appraisal are consequently affected. The latter one also needs to be improved since DP3 as an appraisal tool has a lot of weaknesses. Lessons learned from this study basically become a strategic point for Indonesia to maintain their ongoing public sector reform. It is time for ‘double- loop learning'' through self-awareness and understanding another good practices in some developed countries.