The three main global challenges for the twenty - first century are energy, water and air — that is, sufficient energy to ensure a reasonable standard of living, clean water to drink, and clean air to breathe. For example, oil and natural gas are transmitted across continents using high - pressure steel pipelines that must operate for decades without failure, so that neither the groundwater nor the air is unnecessarily polluted. In design, operation, and maintenance of nuclear power plants, management of corrosion is critical. The reliability of materials used in nuclear waste disposal must be sufficient so that that the safety of future generations is not compromised.Notwithstanding the many years over which university, college, and continuing education courses in Electrochemical Engineering have been available, high - profile electrochemical failures continue to take place. Although the teaching of electrochemical should not be regarded as a dismal failure, it has certainly not been a stellar success providing all engineers and technologists a basic minimum “ literacy level ” in electrochemical engineering that would be sufficient to ensure reliability and prevent failures.