Chemical pesticides play a significant role in combating pest problems in agriculture. Increased production and productivity in agriculture in recent years is largely the result of improved crop varieties as well as enhanced use of pesticides, plant nutrients and irrigation. Besides, positive aspects of pesticides use, their adverse effects on environment and human health have been well documented worldwide. The primary aim of this study was to assess the extent of pesticide usage as well as investigate the knowledge and practice regarding pesticide use and health safety among commercial vegetable growers and pesticide traders of Chitwan district, Nepal. A questionnaire survey with 50 commercial vegetable growers and 12 pesticide traders, formal and informal interviews with different stakeholders (extension agencies, NGOs, vegetable marketing cooperatives) and field observations were carried out to gather information about pesticide use, perception of health effects and pest management practices.