In 21th century, pharmacognosy research areas are expanded and new aspects of phytochemistry, analytical chemistry, ethnobiology, ethnomedicine, molecular biology, and phytomedicine are developed. The present book prepares a practical guidance for young scientists, researchers, pharmacognosy and phytochemistry students with little experience of pharmacognostical investigations. It is considered that the comprehensive practical methods, as the laboratory manual, were included for each natural product class together with the colored photos of the reactions, which have not been found in the previous related books. Previous practical pharmacognosy books contained mainly the microscopic analysis and concise phytochemical methods. For this reason, the authors tried to include more details about the phytochemical methods, biological and biochemical assays and molecular biological techniques related to natural products and medicinal plants. Thereafter publishing this book, the authors intend to develop the chapters adding more experimental methods, which may be useful in new aspects of pharmacognosy.