Chondrocytes live isolated in the voluminous extracellular matrix of cartilage, which they secrete and is neither vascularized nor innervated. Nutrient and waste exchanges occur through diffusion leading to low oxygen tension around the cells. Consequently even normal cartilage under normal physiological conditions suffers from a poor reparative potential that predisposes to degenerative conditions, such as osteoarthritis of the joints, with significant clinical effects. One of the key challenges in medicine is the structural and functional replacement of lost or damaged tissues. Current therapeutical approaches are to transplant cells, implant bioartificial tissues, and chemically induce regeneration at the site of the injury. None of them reproduces well the biological and biomechanical properties of hyaline cartilage. This thesis investigates the re-differentiation of chondrocytes and the repair of cartilage mediated by signaling molecules, biomaterials, and factors provided in mixed cellular cultures (co-culture systems).