The present study emphasizes the impact of various parameters such as salinity, temperature, pH, NO2, NH3, PO4 and dissolved oxygen on the occurrence and distribution of Artemia populations in three ponds viz. reservoir (RP), evaporation ponds (EP) and crystallizer ponds (CP) at Kelambakkam salt pans. The related physico-chemical parameters were studied by making monthly assessments for the period of two year. The variation of temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen were recorded on monthly basis by adapting standard protocols. All the observations with reference to adult biomass and cyst production were made in natural salt pans by correlating with the existing physico-chemical factors. Accordingly, minimum temperature of 28.6±0.5ºC was recorded during June, 2008 and maximum of 34.5±0.5ºC during March, 2009. Significant differences in salinity could be observed in all three ponds. The reservoir pond, recorded minimum salinity of 73.2±0.05o/oo where as evaporation pond registered 101.2±0.02 o/oo. The crystallizer pond, from where the pure salt was isolated, showed wide range of variation in salinity (186.5±0.01 o/oo - 361±0.08 o/oo).