The ability to reproduce is one of the characteristic of living organisms. Conception occurs only when the male and female eggs meet at a certain time of the menstrual cycle within the reproductive age of a female. The menstrual cycle which, under normal circumstance is observed monthly by every woman is associated with so many physical and structural changes that affect the life of the woman. Upon time these changes cause psychological and social problems even among the educated couples leading to marriage separation because of poor understanding of human physiology. This book attempts to explain the physiology of menstrual cycle and contraception in a simple language that can be understood even by those who have no much knowledge about reproductive physiology. The explanation on contraception will give couples wide range of safer methods to adapt when faced with vulnerabilities of life. It also, helps female to use their time judiciously during religious activities by delaying or prolonging their period until they have completed their religious rites. It is hoped that, this book will be much useful to the general public and to the students of natural and medical sciences.