This book covers the Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of hypolipidemic activity of Melothria maderaspatana (Linn) in high fat diet fed rats. Melothria maderaspatana is a plant drug belonging to family cucurbitaceae, mostly prevalent in south India. Melothria is a large genus of herbs with 105 species found in warmer region of world. Melothria maderaspatana Linn, is a high valued medicinal significance. It aimed to isolate phytoconstituents and then to characterized them by various methods like TLC, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, spectroscopy. Then aqueous extract of Melothria maderaspatana plant was used for the investigation of hypolipidemic activity in rats. This book will provide food of thoughts for researchers and academicians regarding the future trends and research methodologies on phytochemical investigations on plant Melothria maderaspatana (Linn).