The exact origin of barley is debatable, possibly originating in Ethiopia, Egypt, the Near East or Tibet. Ethiopian barley has been identified as a priority crop since the 1920s, and extensive germplasm collections have been deposited in gene banks all over the world due to its usefulness and high genetic and morphological diversity. This diversity can be utilized in different breeding activities and that is why breeders are showing interest globally in Ethiopian accessions. These accessions have variability in their yield potential, disease tolerance and tolerance to other biotic and abiotic stresses. So this work is to throw light on this issue and indicate the way forward for breeders dealing with barley. The study involved 144 barley accessions and they are proved to have variability in those traits. The reader is therefore, invited to read the whole book to get full information.