Microbial and plant fuel cell represents a new type of green technology for electricity generation. In this book, batch production of electricity using river water sediment and plant sediment is reported .Experiments were conducted in a single chamber microbial fuel cell and plant fuel cell to study the amount of electricity produced. The study revealed that river water sediments and plants could be used effectively for direct electricity generation in single dedicated fuel cell. Plant fuel technology is still in an early stage of development but shows great promise as new method for renewable electricity generation. Such a system can produce in-situ 24 hours per day green electricity without harvesting the plants. The Plant-MFC concept has several attractive qualities which can provide the significant breakthrough for sustainable energy production in India.