Eleven plant parasitic nematode species were identified on plantain in a diagnostic survey of southern Nigeria. In comparison with the black sigatoka disease and the banana weevil, Pratylenchus coffeae followed by Radopholus similis are the major biotic constraints to plantain production in Nigeria. Variation in susceptibility to nematodes and symptom expression was observed between the False Horn plantain cv. Agbagba and the French plantain cv. Obino l'Ewai although nematodes generally caused yield reduction on both cultivars. Organic mulch cushioned the damaging effect of nematodes and influenced the predominance of a species in a population mixture. Nematodes caused on average 50% plantain yield reduction in south eastern Nigeria and 20% absolute loss. This book presents a series of first reports on plantain from Nigeria, reviewed its uses in traditional herbal medicine, briefly introduced the double bunched plantain and identified some challenges to research for development in Nigeria. It is a valuable reference material for researchers, extension workers, teachers, undergraduate and graduate students, growers of plantain and banana, policy makers and non professionals.