In semiconductor industry, material property degradation due to process is a critical factor that limits the device performance. Process-induced damage on a variety of dielectric materials is discussed and measured. Results from various metrologies are packaged and correlated into systematic theory. Charge-induced, chemical, and physical damage source in plasma process environment is identified and optimized. Two sample types of dielectrics are investigated: high-k dielectrics used in device technology and low-k dielectrics as observed in interconnect technology.