This book illustrates the benefits of plastid engineering over nuclear transformations using chloroplast preferred codon optimized cry1 Ab gene equally expressing in nucleus as well, in model plant tobacco. Not only gene insertion was confirmed but also the gene expression was analyzed. A number of valuable agronomic traits such as improved crop yield, sustainability, tolerance to drought, salt, herbicide and insect resistance etc can be engineered easily in plastome rather than in nucleus. The problem of gene escape is not observed in plastid transformations hence, reducing general public concern of establishing "super weeds". Transplastomics have generated a new era of Green technology opening attractive avenues for bio technologists.