This book is a study of the influence of culture in the national policy formulation processes of Malaysia and Australia. Superficially, these two countries have common stated policy priorities, similar Westminster-based architectures of government, and comparable civil services. However, under the influence of culture and history, the two countries’ policy formulation processes have developed very differently. In seeking explanations for the similarities and differences in government processes, the book demonstrates how cultural and historical experiences influence the policy formulation processes itself, and consequently the governments’ ability to achieve their stated policy priorities. By drawing out the role of cultural influences and historical experiences in the policy formulation process, the book provides policy scholars and practitioners with a new culturally-responsive model for the analysis of policy formulation processes. The study concludes that better awareness of cultural and historical influences on Malaysia’s and Australia’s policy formulation processes would likely lead to closer relations between the two countries.