Even the best policy is of little use if it is not successfully implemented. As there are many examples of policy implementation failure, this work considers existing theories of implementation and identifies leadership as an essential factor in successful implementation, but a factor missing from those theories. In support of this claim, the book examines the implementation of the policy of university amalgamations in the 1980s and 1990s in Australia, involving Monash University (successful implementation), the University of New England (a partially successful implementation), and the Australian National University (implementation failure), and identifies the respective critical factors involved. The study argues that the best available model of policy implementation is that set by Cerych and Sabatier (1986), but even this is critcally inadequate, through its omission of the factor of leadership. The work presents a modification of this model. Consequently researchers, planners, policy makers and managers at all levels in both the public and private sector could benefit substantially from this study.