This book addresses political structures, military organization and economics as cultural foundations for conducting HUMINT (Human Intelligence) operations in China. It draws from the expertise developed by Dr. Jim Schnell’s 35 years in the military intelligence community, most notably serving as a HUMINT officer in China under the auspices of his Assistant Air Attache assignment in Beijing. This practitioner experience is enhanced via his theoretical background in civilian higher education. Schnell’s Ph.D. (Ohio University, 1982) in human communication processes and relevant scholarly publications, focusing on China and cross-cultural relations, provide ample context for analyzing HUMINT operations in China. His work as a Fulbright Scholar and multiple fellowships at the East-West Center (Honolulu) has served to cultivate insights relevant for the civilian academic community and military intelligence professionals. Schnell's 20-plus trips to China have helped keep his perspective current. He has held teaching posts at Beijing Jiaotong University, Ohio State University, Royal University of Phnom Penh, University of Cincinnati and Ohio Dominican University.