Worldwide establishment of industries is the chief culprit to pose the environmental threat. The cost of substantially reducing industrial pollution is high; how to finance it without undue economic burden remains a question. There is a need for revised technology to diminish industrial pollution and to dispose of all wastes in ways less damaging to the environment. Keeping this fact in the mind, this work begun with the utilization of handmade paper and cardboard industrial waste for mushroom cultivation. Mushroom cultivation on industrial wastes will solve two major problems – first one is the accumulation of industrial waste in the environment and second is the shortage of food simultaneously. This book focuses on the morphological, anatomical and mutagenicity analysis of mushroom cultivated on handmade paper and cardboard industrial wastes and their mixture with wheat straw. When these wastes were mixed with wheat straw increase in biological efficiency was observed and mushroom fruiting bodies were found to be normal and non-mutagenic. This book will be helpful for all those researchers who are working on bioremediation concept and mushroom cultivation technology.