Pollution can be caused by wide variety of inorganic and organic compounds and microorganisms often play a major role in determining the extent of this pollution. Organic pollution occurs when large qualitative organic compounds are released into the water bodies. The river Buriganga is economically very important to Dhaka city but it is threatened by pollution. The residential and commercial establishments along the river cause discharge of wastewater either directly into drains and canals which subsequently find their way into the river. Our purpose in writing this research book is to bring together concepts and data from different research experiments to provide a foundation, both for understanding the problems we face, and for finding ways to progress toward of an eco-friendly environment. Findings from experiments conducted during different seasons of the year for understanding the bacteriological and physicochemical status of the river and find out the possible ways for its improvement through biotechnology have been discussed. We hope this book will be an informative, interesting, and endorsing resource toward that end.