Rapid population growth has been shown to have consequences for agricultural land use, deforestation, land degradation, water resource use and food crop production. Yet, only few studies have examined the population and environment relationship in Ghana. This publication examines population growth on one hand and agricultural development, agricultural land use and food crop production on the other hand in the Afram Plains of Ghana. It also considers vulnerability of households to climate change and management of water resources under climate variability and change. Finally, soil characteristics under different land cover types in the Afram Plains are ascertained. This publication is intended to contribute to the population-environment debate in a developing country setting.