Poverty and landlessness are interrelated. The landless community in rural areas is left without access to land to cultivate and sustain livelihood. This book endeavours to bring out the socio-economic conditions of the landless community who is becoming more marginalised and vulnerable due to poverty, deprivation and social exclusion. The book explores poverty among the landless community in Kalahandi district which is one of the poorest region in India and infamous for hunger, starvation and drought. The findings of this book highlights the facts that, they are being exploited, marginalised and forced into the peril of poverty through multiple deprivations, inequality, distress migration and food insecurity since last several decades. Deprivations of people with means of production, the land being the most important of all are the crux of all problems of poverty. But, if landlessness is captured then all the other issues can take their way in order. The challenging task of providing them with better livelihood opportunities and services should be undertaken by the government authorities without any biasness and further delay.