Bangladesh is a developing country characterized by over population, massive illiteracy, poor health, frequent natural disaster, low agricultural productivity, underdeveloped industry based society and unemployment which form the vicious circle of abject poverty in the rural communities of the country. In Bangladesh, poverty is an economic phenomenon unable to satisfy even a minimum standard of living. Since the 1990s, alleviating poverty has been the top priority in 21st Century. Within this framework, various initiatives have already been taken by the Government. The main objective of this study is to identify and investigate the missions, goals and activities of NGOs operating in Bangladesh to help reduce poverty and enhance development. Authors have conceptually analyzed the terms, activities, background of NGOs and concept of rural poverty, poverty alleviation, and development in Bangladesh. Thus aim of book is to understand the causal linkages between poverty alleviation and development in the context of NGO operations, the prospect and challenges ahead and also to identify the steps essential to overcome the challenges in poverty alleviation in Bangladesh.