Poverty and food insecurity are overwhelming problems of rural Ethiopia. This book argues for approaching poverty and food insecurity as the two sides of the same coin in the areas where the two ideas cannot be separated. The book begins with an exposition of the concepts of poverty and food insecurity and shows that being rural means being at risk of limited livelihood opportunities. This piece of work is an exploratory one and preferred to triangulate quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection and analysis. It argues that applying sustainable livelihood framework combines rural livelihood strategies to promote rural development through growth in agriculture and rural off-farm activities with non-rural strategies that provide people with diversified livelihood sources. It goes on to argue that that there are both natural and human factors that intensified the existing poverty and food insecurity in the area. Evidence is presented to substantiate this argument. The book concludes by discussing the implications of applying holistic approach to poverty reduction and food security; and also the danger of overlooking indigenous knowledge of the local people.